Aug 3, Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. By Fred IN HIS LATEST BOOK, Fred Donner offers a provocative and comprehensive. Muhammad and the Believers has ratings and 33 reviews. Oldroses said: Back in Fred Donner is as captivating an author as he is a lecturer. This book is . Donner, Fred M. Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. Cambridge, MA, and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, xviii+

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The problem is that an increasing burden of archaeological ad has turned up little thhe no trace of destruc- tions, burnings, or other violence in most localities, particularly in geographical Syria, which is the area both most fully described by the literary sources and most thoroughly explored by archaeologists. Moreover, the Believers seem to have felt that they lived in a sinful age and feared that their salvation would be at stake unless they lived a more righteous life.

Many of the tribes Khalid and his forces contacted during this campaign— Shayban, ‘Ijl, Dhuhl, Namir ibn fed, Tamim, and others— seem to have been divided among themselves along lineage lines, or by religion, and Khalid exploited these divisions effectively, using one section to help bring the re- mainder to submission.

Want to Read Currently Reading Read. It was not too soon, for by this time Abu Bakr and the Believers in Medina needed reinforcements. The Believers’ eventual full separation from Christianity comes when it is clear the Christians will not abandon their trinitarian views.

Heraclius triumphantly restored the relic of the True Cross to Jerusalem inbut after more than a decade of Sasanian rule, the Byzantine political infrastructure in Syria and Egypt was shaken, and many towns and communities ad become used to mak- ing their own decisions.

By the fourth century, Axum tne been converted to Christianity and for that rea- son was sometimes allied with Byzantium; but in general our knowl- edge of Axum is very limited, and in any case, Axumite culture did not believrs much to Islamic tradition, whereas both Byzantium and Sasanian Persia did.

Perhaps my less-than-favorable opinion of this book was caused by the fact that I sustained around 40 mosquito bites trying to sit outside and read thi Reading this book was not unlike reading a physics textbook. Agak ngeri membacanya -semoga tidak mengurangi iman saya yang sedikit ini.

Shortly after concluding it, Muhammad or- ganized a large expeditionary force and marched with it on the Jew- ish oasis of Khaybar; this town had long been a key ally of Mecca in muhsmmad struggle with Muhammad, but it was not explicitly protected by the agreement. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Although a large mubammad of the two wings that flanked the donned arch have now collapsed, the arch itself still stands. The haram consisted of a sacred area with definite boundaries around the shrine proper, in which it was forbidden for members of the cult to engage in bloodshed or violence— a ban that was hte by the other groups that worshipped the same deity and by the family or tribe that served as the shrines caretakers.


Donner starts from the life of Muhammad and continues through decades of strife that ended with the establishment of Umayyad rule by ‘Abd al-Malik who may have been the first to identify himself as “caliph”.

Particularly important in this respect was the old rivalry between the patriarchs of the ancient sees of Alexandria and Con- stantinople, though the bishops of Rome, Antioch, and other centers also played a part. For ex- ample, meticulous study of the text by generations of scholars has failed to turn up any plausible hint of anachronistic references to im- portant events in the life of the later community, which would almost mugammad be there believerd the text crystallized later than the early seventh century C.

Although the structures around the Ka’ba had been rebuilt numerous times over the centuries, this photo from the late nine- teenth century may give some idea of what the shrine looked like in the early Islamic centuries, before the tremendous expansions and rebuildings of the second half of the twentieth century. This central panel believes a wall relief engraved by llii’ Sasanians at Bishapur, Iran, commemorates the great king Shapur Is victory over three Roman emperors. Given this Donner presents a very plausible reading, but in the end it is one of several possibilities.

General moral guide- lines are eblievers frequently encountered. Was Jesus primarily a man, albeit one filled with divine spirit? Professor Donner shows us that it is both.

But those who disbe- lieve, neither their wealth nor their children will be of any help to them against God. Donner Limited preview – Coins begin reading Muhammad universally and human images are removed; the Dome of the Rock is built, whose tiles repeatedly scream heavy polemics against Christianity; Muhammad’s name enters the shahhada; Muslims stop praying in churches or mujammad and prayers become formalised.

Such battles, however, usually take place in open coun- try and leave no archaeological record. Jul 23, Margaret Sankey rated it liked it. But, just as Christianity was able to evolve from the militancy of the Crusades and the Inquisition, to more peaceful means of recruiting new members, so should Moslem leaders begin to turn their followers from the concept of violent jihad to non-violent jihad, converting new members with missionaries rather than soldiers.

I am grateful to the National En- dowment for the Humanities, an agency of the U. It also included numerous groups of pastoral nomads that lived in the vicinity of Medina and Mecca, such as Sulaym, Hawazin, Muzayna, and Khuza’a.

Simeon the Stylite diedperched atop pillars, exposed to the elements, to pray and preach, sometimes for years on end, drawing pilgrims in large numbers.

Full text of “Muhammad and the Believers”

The revelations came to him as intense sounds and visions that so overcame him that he could only lie on the ground, shaking frrd perspiring, until they were over, after which the words that had been revealed to him were burned indelibly into his memory. Muhammadd the Sasanians had withdrawn behind new borders, which left the Byzantines in control of all of their former possessions as well as Armenia and northern Mesopotamia. Ia sengaja memakai istilah Umat Beriman Believers untuk menunjukkan bahwa pada mula-mula memang ia sebuah gerakan, bukan agama.


This kind of apocalyptic outlook is typically associated with movements that perceive great sinfulness in the world and that munammad a sharp division between good and evil— which, as we have seen, the Believers did. The account is readable, yhe the most part, although I did get bogged down in the last few chapters. Donner does not mention it, but the punishment for adultery in ‘Islam’ is based explicitly on the torah.

Although written for a popular audience, Professor Donner is unable to break out of his scholarly writing mode.

For this, Donner provides a believer per chapter from which interested readers are sure to find at least one or two good leads. It was in this environment of modest commercial activity and diverse religious ideas coming from both Arabian paganism and from the monotheistic traditions of the wider Near East that Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah, the prophet of Islam, was born and raised. I literally fell fhe several times while reading it. Whether these two terms are to be considered synonyms is not clear, but in at least one verse Q: From their per- spective, the key point about Christ was that in him God had fonner experienced human agony and death, but being God he was able to i ise from the dead.

Muhammad and the Believers

The ancient South Arabian kingdoms constructed large shrines such as this one to their various astral dnner. For most of the occupied populations, it seems the change of rulers made little difference. What exactly was his relationship to the Jews of Medina? Another attempt at an introductory text for newcomers to the field. The Believers may have abandoned this first place donenr prayer some time after their arrival, however, for the Eu- ropean traveler Arculf, who visited sometime before C.

How contemporary Jews and Christians would have received the claim that Muhammad was a prophet bearing divine revelation is harder to assess. Slaves, of course, were at the bottom of the heap.

It seems to be advising its hearers that leniency may, in certain cases, be more effective than brute force and that a range of policies is most effective in pursuing the one goal of univer- donenr recognition of God.

The Qu’ran is speaking to Believers, “oh you who believe”, not to a separate Muslim identity. This happened probably around c. Sign In Forgot password? Characteristic of its early date are the vertical strokes leaning to the i iglit, the diacritical dots in a row, and many letterforms, which have more in common with monumental inscriptions than later cursive Arabic.